Calvino's Fictional Works

". . . I can never sufficiently highly recommend the direct reading of the text itself, leaving aside the critical biography, commentaries, and interpretations as much as possible . . ."  Calvino in "Why Read the Classics?"

Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno. Turin: Einaudi, 1947. [The Path to the Nest of Spiders, trans. Archibald Colquhoun. Boston: Beacon, 1957.]

Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno. Turin: Einaudi, 1947. [The Path to the Nest of Spiders, trans. Archibald Colquhoun. Boston: Beacon, 1957.]

Ultimo Viene il corvo (The Crow Comes Last). Turin: Einaudi, 1949. Some of these stories later appeared in Adam, One Afternoon and Other Stories, trans. by Archibald Colquhoun and Peggy Wright. London: Collins, 1957.

Il visconte dimezzato. Turin: Einaudi, 1952. [The Nonexistent Knight and the Cloven Viscount, trans. Archibald Colquhoun. New York: Random House, 1962.]

La formica argentina. Turin: Einaudi, 1965. ["The Argentine Ant" and "Smog" in The Watcher and Other Stories, trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1971.]

L'entrata in guerra (Entrance into War). Turin: Einaudi, 1954. Three stories, "L'entrat in guerra," "Gli avanguardisti a Mentone," and "Le notti dell'UNPA," are later published in I racconti.

Il barone rampante. Turin: Einaudi, 1957. [The Baron in the Trees, trans. Archibald Colquhoun. New York: Random House, 1959.]

I racconti. (The Stories) Turin: Einaudi, 1958. Most of these stories later appeared in collections such as Adam, One Afternoon, and Other Stories; The Watcher and Other Stories; and Difficult Loves.

Il cavaliere inesistente. Turin: Einaudi, 1959. [The Nonexistent Knight and the Cloven Viscount, trans. Archibald Colquhoun. New York: Random House, 1962.]

La giornata d' uno scrutatore. Turin: Einaudi, 1963. [The Watcher and Other Stories, trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1971.]

Marcovaldo, ovvero le stagiono in citta. Turin: Einaudi, 1963. [Marcovaldo or the Seasons in the City, trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1983.]

Le cosmicomiche. Turin: Einaudi, 1965. [Cosmicomics, trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1968.]

Ti con zero. Turin: Einaudi, 1967. [t zero, trans. William Weaver, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1969.]

La memoria del mondo e altre storie cosmicomiche (The Memory of the World and More Cosmicomic Stories). Milan: Club degli Editori, 1968.

"Il castello dei destini incrociati" in Tarocchi: Il mazzo viconte de Bergamo e di New York. Parma: Franco Maria Ricci Editore, 1969. [The Castle of Crossed Destinies, trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1979.]

Gli amori difficili. Turin: Einaudi, 1970. Several of the stories appear in Difficult Loves, trans. Archibald Colquhoun, William Weaver, and Peggy Wright. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1984.

Le citta invisibili. Turin: Einaudi, 1972. [Invisible Cities, trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1974.]

Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore. Turin: Einaudi, 1979. [If on a winter's night a traveler, trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1981.]

Palomar. Turin: Einaudi, 1983. [Mr. Palomar, trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1985.]

Cosmicomiche vecchie e nuove (Old and New Cosmicomics). Milan: Garzanti, 1984.

Sotto il Sole giaguaro. Milan (posthumous work) ; Garzanti, 1986. [Under the Jaguar Sun, trans. William Weaver. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1988.]

La strada di San Giovanni (The Road to San Giovanni, posthumous). Milan: Mondadori, 1990.

Fiabe italiane. Turin: Einaudi, 1956. [Italian Fables, trans. Louis Brigante. New York: Collier, 1961.]

Italian Folktales, trans. George Martin. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1980; and Pantheon, 1980.


Lezioni Americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio. Milan: Garzanti, 1988. [Six Memos for the Next Millennium, posthumous, for the Charles Eliot Norton lectures, trans. William Weaver. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.]

Perche leggere i classici (Why Read the Classics, posthumous). Milan: Mondadori, 1991.

Una pietra sopra: Discorsi di letteratura e societa. Turin: Einaudi, 1980. [Several of the essays appear in The Uses of Literature: Essays, trans. Patrick Creagh. New York Harcourt Brace, 1986. Also in The Literature Machine: Essays. London: Secker and Warburg, 1987.]

Scholarly Works on Calvino

". . . Schools and universities ought to help us understand that no books that talk about a book says more than the book in question, but instead they do their level best to make us think the opposite . . ." Calvino in "Why Read the Classics?"

Adler, Sara Maria. Calvino: The Writer as Fablemaker. Studia Humanitatis. Potomac, MD: Ediciones Jose Porrua Turanzas, 1979.

Cannon, JoAnn. Italo Calvino: Writer and Critic. Ravenna: Longo Editore, 1980.

Carter, Albert Howard, III. Italo Calvino: Metamorphoses of Fantasy. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1987.

Feinstein, Wiley. Humilityís Deceit: Calvino Reading Ariosto Reading Calvino. West Lafayette, IN: Bordighera, 1995.

Gabriele, Tommasina. Italo Calvino: Eros and Language. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1994.

Olken, Ilene T. With Pleated Eye and Garnet Wings: Symmetries of Italo Calvino. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984.

Markey, Constance. Italo Calvino: A Journey toward Postmodernism. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1999.

Re, Lucia. Calvino and the Age of Neorealism: Fables of Estrangement. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990.

Ricci, Franco. Difficult Games: A Reading of "I racconti" by Italo Calvino. Waterloo. Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1990.

---------, ed. Calvino Revisited. Ottawa, Canada: Dovehouse Editions Inc., 1989.

Weiss, Beno. Understanding Italo Calvino. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1993.

Woodhouse, J.R. Italo Calvino: A Reappraisal and an Appreciation of the Trilogy. Hull: University of Hull, 1968.

Online Scholarly Articles*

*Those sources located at Project Muse (Johns Hopkins University) require institutional licensing.

"Calvino E Walt Disney: Iconografia Della Bestia" (Paragone-letteratura. 524-546 (1993): 33-59.) and "Calvino Al Premio Riccione 1947 (Quaderni del '900. (2003): 35-50). These are both PDF files hosted here at Malbork.
By Andrea Dini, Assistant Professor of Italian, Montclair State University.

"The Path to the Nest of Translation"
"Giulia Guarnieri discusses her interviews with Italo Calvino's translator as well as the disagreements Calvino had with Pier Paolo Pasolini about the future evolution of the Italian language."

  • Guarnieri's interview (in Italian) with William Weaver is hosted at Malbork (in MS Word).

Les derniers romans d'Italo Calvino comme hypertextes (Italo Calvino's final novels as hypertext)
By Mikhail Vizel; translated from the Russian by Nadejda Ivanoca.

In Especulo, June-Oct. 1997, by Elizabeth Sánchez Garay.

"Reading Beyond Meaning"
By George Aichele, Postmodern Culture 3.3, 1993. "In Italo Calvino's postmodern novel, If on a Winter's Night a Traveler, there is a character named Irnerio. Irnerio is a "non-reader"--a person who has taught himself how not to read."

"Palomar, the Triviality of Modernity, and the Doctrine of the Void"
By Stefano Franchi, New Literary History, 28.4 (1997) 757-778.

"Corporeal Anxiety in the Dictionary of the Khazars"
Subtitled: "What Books Talk about in the Late Age of Print When They Talk about Losing Their Bodies," by N. Katherine Hayles, Modern Fiction Studies 43.3 (1997) 800-820. "A case in point is Italo Calvino's If on a winter's night a traveler, which operates as if it knows it has a physical body imperiled by multifarious threats, from defective printing technologies to editorial brain fade."

The Electronic Labyrinth: The Non-Linear Tradition in Literature
Contains information on The Castle of Crossed Destinies and hypertext technology.

"Calvino and the Value of Literature"
By Lucia Re, MLN 113.1 (1998) 121-137, part of Johns Hopkins University's fabulous Project Muse.

"The End of Books:" on hypertext
By Robert Coover, June 21, 1992. "In the real world nowadays, that is to say, in the world of video transmissions, cellular phones, fax machines, computer networks, and in particular out in the humming digitalized precincts of avant-garde computer hackers, cyberpunks and hyperspace freaks, you will often hear it said that the print medium is a doomed and outdated technology . . "

"Calvino and the Oulipo: An Italian Ghost in the Combinatory Machine?"
By Anna Botta, MLN, 112.1 (1997) 81-89.

"Interfacing with Computer Narratives: Literary Possibilities for Interactive Fiction"
By Nicholas A. Montford, University of Texas at Austin.  "A computer narrative is a story told on a computer. This story need not be wholly or at all textual. While some traditional narratives have been converted to the computer medium, interactive narratives, to which the reader can explicitly react, reveal a new potential of this medium."

"Memory and Oulipian Constraints"
By Peter Consenstein, Postmodern Culture 6.1, 1995. This long essay concerns The Workshop for Potential Literature, or Oulipo, of which Calvino was a member.

Blowpipes Trombone Trio Oulipo Page
More information on the Ouvroir de Littérature Potentielle.

Calvino's Reality: Designer's Utopia
By Johanna Jacob, printed in Utopica Studies, Spring 1998. " This paper addresses a utopian approach to teaching and learning graphic design for the future through five concepts that Calvino offers in Six Memos for the Next Millennium. Unlike the more historical idea of utopia as place, I propose utopianism as a process."

"Notes Toward an Unwritten Non-Linear Electronic Text, 'The Ends of Print Culture'"
By Michael Joyce, Postmodern Culture 2.1, 1991.

"Revealed Truth and Acquired Knowledge: Considerations on Manzoni and Gadda"
By Robert de Lucca. Calvino's opinions on Gadda are drawn on extensively. MLN 111.1 (1996) 58-73.

Calvino as Urbanologist
"Calvino belonged to the Parisian literary group OULIPO (Ouvroir de Litterature Potentiel), another well-known member being Georges Perec, who remarked that about a quarter of his work could be classified as "sociological," and some of whose work can profitably be seen as a kind of sociology. . ."

Articles on Calvino

Barth, John. "The Literature of Replenishment: Postmodernist Fiction." The Atlantic 245 (1980): 65-71.
De Leon-Jones, Karen. "Language and Identity in Calvino's Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno." Forum for Modern Language Studies 33.4 (1997): 360-68.
Falaschi, Giovanni. "Italo Calvino. " Belfagor 27 (1972): 530-558.
Feinstein, Wiley. "The Dead Author as Orthodox Heretic in Calvino's Late Fiction." Canadian Journal of Italian Studies16.47 (1993): 143-56.
Giartosio, Tommaso. "Inside the Shell: Paradoxes of Discretion in Italo Calvino's Works." Anello Che Non Tiene4.1-2 (1992): 72-88.
Hume, Kathryn. "Grains of Sand in a Sea of Objects: Italo Calvino as Essayist." The Modern Language Review 87.1 (1992): 72-85.
Mazzoni, Cristina. "(Re)constructing the Incipit: Narrative Beginnings in Calvino's If on a winter's night a traveler and Freud's Notes upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis."Comparative Literature Studies 30.1 (1993): 53-68.
McLaughlin, Martin L. "Calvino's Visible Cities." Romance Studies 22 (1993): 67-82.
Merrell, Floyd. "The Writing of Forking Paths: Borges, Calvino and Postmodern Novels of Writing." Variaciones Borges 3 (1997): 56-68.
Mucher, Walter J. "Tracing the Modern Self in Italo Calvino's Cosmicomics: Qfwq's Journey through Spacetime." Extrapolation 38.2 (1997): 119-26.
Nocentini, Claudia. "Narrative and Ideological Function of the Narrator in Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno." Forum for Modern Language Studies 33.4 (1997): 369-75.
Pilz, Kertin. "Complexity: A Paradigm for 'One Culture'?"Forum Italicum 31.2 (1997): 423-37.
Ragusa, Olga. "Italo Calvino: The Repeated Conquest of Contemporaneity." World Literature Today 57.2 (Spring 1983): 195-201.
Raffa, Guy P. "Eco and Calvino Reading Dante." Italica73.3 (1996): 388-409.
Ricci, Franco. "The Quest for Sonship in Le citta invisibili and La strada di San Giovanni by Italo Calvino." Forum Italicum 29.1 (1995): 52-75.
Sbragia, Albert. "Italo Calvino's Ordering of Chaos."Modern Fiction Studies 39.2 (1993): 283-306.
Spindler, William. "Magic Realism: A Typology." Forum for Modern Language Studies 29.1 (1993): 75-85.
Updike, John. "Readers and Writers." The New Yorker57.24 (August 3, 1981): 90-93.
Usher, Jonathan. "Calvino and the Computer as Writer/Reader." The Modern Language Review 90.1 (1995): 41-54.
Vidal, Gore. "Fabulous Calvino." New York Review of Books 21.9 (30 May 1974): 13-21.
Watson, David S. "The Representation of Reality in Italo Calvino's Racconti partigiani." Canadian Journal of Italian Studies 19.52 (1996): 1-18.
Weiss, Beno. "Cottolengo: Calvino's Living Hell: The Speculating Intellectual at the Crossroads." Italian Culture10 (1992): 145-58.
Wood, Sharon. "The Reflections of Mr. Palomar and Mr. Cogito: Italo Calvino and Zbigniew Herbert." MLN 109.1 (1994): 128-41.

-Updated June 9, 2004; Outside the Town of Malbork was first programmed in Jan. 1999.